Allergy Skin Disorders: Reactions, Rashes, and Treatments

Eczema

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) starts as a cluster of blisters that turns into a scaly, itchy rash.

Allergies happen when your body overreacts to something external. It could be a medication, a food, or something that you wear, but whatever causes an allergy, it sets off a reaction inside your body. That reaction puts your body on high alert, causing it to reject the allergy-causing item (known as an "allergen"). When your skin is doing the reacting, it can become red, itchy, or painful. Sometimes blisters bubble up. At other times your skin can become scaly. Some of these reactions follow common patterns, while others are more sporadic.

Skin allergies can take many forms, and can be caused by many allergens. Some people react to sunlight only after their skin has touched citrus fruit. Others will react after their skin touches a certain perfume, or a certain metal. For some allergic skin conditions, children are more likely to react. For other conditions, women are more likely to experience skin reactions. As you go through these images, you will gain insight into many of the ways allergies can cause problems with your skin. Learn about phototoxic dermatitis, lichen striatus, eczema, swimmer's itch, and many, many more allergic skin conditions. Discover what steps you can take to protect your health when your skin reacts to allergens.

Eczema is a group of itchy, inflammatory skin conditions. Another name for eczema is atopic dermatitis. Eczema may start in infancy or childhood and persist into adulthood. For others, eczema lessens with age. Eczema starts as a cluster of blisters that progresses into a thick, scaly, intensely itchy rash. There are many different types of eczema.

  • Atopic dermatitis is a form of eczema related to the same immune reaction that underlies allergy and asthma (atopic disease). The condition tends to be chronic.
  • Contact dermatitis results when allergens or irritants provoke skin inflammation. Allergens may include plants, pets, and certain foods. Irritants may include chemicals in cleaning products, beauty products, paints, and solvents. Contact with fragrances or certain fabrics may provoke dermatitis.
  • Dyshidrotic dermatitis results in small, fluid-filled blisters that form on the hands and feet. The blisters are intensely itchy.
  • Neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus) is an intensely itchy rash that often occurs on the forearms, thighs, or ankles. The intense discomfort of the rash provokes scratching -- which increases itching -- prompting more scratching.
  • Nummular dermatitis is a coin-shaped scaly patch or sore that may occur after an injury such an insect bite, abrasion, or burn.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis (seborrheic eczema) causes yellow, flaky patches, usually on the scalp.
  • Stasis dermatitis is a rash that occurs on the lower legs when there is a problem circulation of blood and return of blood to the heart.

Eczema Herpeticum

This skin infection develops over the site of another skin disease--especially atopic dermatitis.

Eczema herpeticum is a herpes skin infection that can develop on areas affected by another skin disease, usually atopic dermatitis. The picture shows a child affected by eczema herpeticum lesions superimposed on a background of atopic dermatitis.

Nummular Eczema

Sometimes a trigger like an insect bite will incite eczema, as is the case with nummular eczema.

Nummular eczema is a type of skin condition that causes itchy, scaly, coin-shaped areas of irritation on the skin. The lesions occur due to a triggering event like an insect bite or the occurrence of dry skin in the winter. “Nummular” is derived from the Latin word “nummus,” that means small coin.

Xerosis

When your skin dries out, the medical name for such a condition is xerosis.

Xerosis is the official medical term for dryness of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Mild cases of dry skin may be alleviated with moisturizers and emollient lotions and creams. More severe cases of dry skin may be an indication of a more serious condition such as dermatitis, or inflammation of the skin.

Atopic Dermatitis, a Type of Eczema

The most common form of eczema is atopic dermatitis, which is common caused by heredity.

Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition. There are many different kinds of eczema, but the most common type is atopic dermatitis. Heredity plays a very big role in determining who is affected by atopic dermatitis. People who have the condition are much more likely to develop other atopic disorders, including allergies and asthma, compared to those who do not have eczema.

Sometimes, eczema develops in infancy, and the condition resolves before the child reaches school age. For others, eczema is a lifelong, chronic condition that must be managed.

Atopic Dermatitis in Babies

Atopic dermatitis is common in infants, and often leaves their faces red and itchy.

Atopic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants. It causes patchy areas of redness, itching, scaling, and exudation, usually on the cheeks and chin. Large areas of the extensor extremities and trunk may also be affected.

Juvenile Plantar Dermatitis

Also known as

Juvenile plantar dermatosis (dermatitis, also "sweaty sock syndrome") is a condition that causes painful cracks on the soles of the feet. It most often occurs in children between the ages of 3 and 14. Affected skin has a scaly, glazed, and shiny appearance.

Children with eczema, asthma, and hay fever seem to be especially prone to juvenile plantar dermatosis. A combination of friction, sweat, and then over drying, triggers the condition. Sometimes synthetic shoes like nylon or vinyl are partly to blame, as these prevent the feet from drying. Sandals can also cause problems, as they are apt to produce more friction than ordinary shoes.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

If you've had an allergic reaction to a perfume, shampoo, poison ivy or jewelry, you have a condition known as contact dermatitis.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin reaction that occurs after contact with an offending substance. Common triggers include products with fragrance, jewelry containing nickel, poison ivy, rubber, bleach, and hand sanitizers. Skin affected by allergic contact dermatitis may be red, itchy, swollen, and warm to the touch. Blisters filled with clear fluid may form. These signs and symptoms are the result of an allergic response. Another name for allergic contact dermatitis is allergic contact eczema.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Tattoo)

Sometimes contact dermatitis is touched off by a temporary tattoo like a henna tattoo.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a compound that provokes a reaction. It is possible to react to compounds in temporary tattoo material. Temporary tattoos contain a mixture of brown henna and black henna, which contains paraphenylenediamine (PPD). The allergic reactiony results from the PPD in the temporary tattoo. The first sign of the condition is a skin eruption that resembles eczema. The affected area may appear hyperpigmented for some time after the exposure.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Arm)

When you develop contact dermatitis from a henna tattoo, the usual culprit is a chemical called paraphenylenediamine (PPD).

Allergic contact dermatitis may occur due to a reaction to compounds found in temporary tattoos. These tattoos often contain a mixture of brown henna with a chemical called paraphenylenediamine (PPD), or black henna. Skin reactions to temporary tattoos are often due to allergies to PPD. Eczema results which then evolves into a postinflammatory change in pigmentation. The photo depicts postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that erupted after the application of a temporary tattoo. The discoloration may persist for a substantial amount of time.

Nickel Contact Dermatitis

Sometimes cheap jewelry can set off a skin reaction. A common culprit is nickel, which can cause contact dermatitis.

Nickel contact dermatitis produces a characteristic red, itchy rash that resembles eczema. In this picture, it appears around the belly button after the skin of the affected individual came in contact with either a metal snap on blue jeans or a metal belt buckle. A skin rash called an id reaction may appear on the knees and elbows at the same time. The red, itchy lesions can be soothed with topical corticosteroids. The best way to cure and avoid this type of contact dermatitis is to avoid all contact with nickel. Exposure to nickel for just a few hours per month is enough to reactivate the condition. People who have nickel contact dermatitis need to avoid jeans with metal snaps, jewelry containing nickel, and ear or body piercing.

Nickel Contact Dermatitis from a Necklace

Sometimes a red rash will develop underneath a new piece of jewelry. When that occurs, you most likely have contact dermatitis.

Nickel contact dermatitis is an allergic skin reaction that happens when a sensitive person comes into contact with nickel. Snaps on clothing or pajamas, jewelry, belt buckles, and watches are common sources of exposure. Contact with nickel can cause red, itchy lesions in the area of contact.

Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer's Itch)

If you've been swimming or wading and small blisters develop soon after, you may have swimmer's itch.

Swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis) is an allergic skin reaction that occurs after infection with microscopic parasites found in bodies of fresh water and oceans. The parasites are carried by infected snails, birds, and other animals. The rash develops in about 1 in every 3 people who come in contact with the microorganism.

The erythematous (reddened) rash may itch, burn, or tingle. Small blisters may appear minutes to days after coming into contact with the parasites. Swimmer's itch can last up to or slightly more than one week, but will eventually resolve.

Swimmer's itch usually does not require medical attention. Treatment for swimmer's itch may include the application of topical creams to reduce pain and itching. Cortisosteroid cream is one option. A bath containing Epsom salts, baking soda, or colloidal oatmeal may be very soothing. Cool compresses applied to the skin can help reduce the symptoms of inflamed skin.

Dermatitis Medicamentosa

If you've had a bad skin reaction from a new medication, you have a case of dermatitis medicamentosa.

Dermatitis medicamentosa is a type of skin reaction that occurs as a side effect of certain medications. Antibiotics and codeine are two potential offenders. Symptoms may include mild to severe redness and the formation of vesicles. Lung symptoms may occur with the skin eruptions. Urticaria, fixed drug eruptions, and erythema multiforme are types of drug eruptions. The photo depicts an infant afflicted with the condition.

Dermatitis Medicamentosa (Back)

Drug reactions on the skin can manifest as red, swollen rashes.

Dermatitis medicamentosa is a type of dermatitis that arises due to a drug reaction. The skin rash looks red (erythematous) and swollen (edematous). The most common medications that trigger this type of reaction are cephalosporins, codeine, and penicillin. The case in this picture clinically resembles erythema multiforme.

Lichen Striatus on Arm

Children can be affected by lichen striatus, which looks like a string of flesh-colored papules.

Lichen striatus is a skin condition that appears in infants and children between the ages of 6 months and 14 years old. The lesions associated with the condition look like flesh-colored papules that are lighter than the surrounding skin (hypopigmented). They erupt in a linear pattern, sometimes extending the entire length of the affected limb. The condition can also affect the nails.

Lichen Striatus on Legs

Girls are more likely to develop lichen striatus than boys, and it sometimes extends all along a leg or arm.

Lichen striatus is a condition that is common in children. It most often affects those 6 to 14 years of age. Girls are more prone to develop the condition than boys. Red or flesh-colored, scaly lesions tend to appear on one side of the body. The lesions form a line that sometimes extends the length of the affected limb. The child may complain of extreme itching at the site of the lesions. Lichen striatus is most often treated with topical steroids. The exact cause of the condition is unknown. Outbreaks occur most often in the spring and summer. A virus may be responsible for the condition.

Palmoplantar Pustulosis

Smokers are especially prone to palmoplantar pustulosis, which causes painful, fluid-filled blisters.

Palmoplantar pustulosis is a chronic skin disease that causes painful fluid filled blisters on the palms and soles. It is also called pustular psoriasis and pustulosis palmaris et plantaris.

Beside the many pus-filled vesicles (pustules), symptoms of palmoplantar pustulosis include thickened, scaly, red skin that can easily crack. The cause of the disease is unknown; it occurs mostly in smokers.

A certain percentage of patients with palmoplantar pustulosis also suffer from chronic plaque psoriasis.

Treatments for the condition include coal tar, topical steroids, and phototherapy.

Palmoplantar Pustulosis on Feet

After the painful blisters go away, skin becomes brown and scaly after a palmoplantar pustulosis outbreak.

Palmoplantar pustulosis is a skin condition characterized by the presence of small, fluid-filled blisters on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands. The blisters may be filled with pus. They eventually turn brown and later the affected patches of skin become scaly. The condition most often occurs in current or past smokers. Palmoplantar pustulosis is a type of psoriasis.

Photoallergic Reaction

Sun exposure can lead to a red, itchy inflammation known as a photoallergic reaction.

Photoallergic reactions occur when exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light alters the structure of a drug and stimulates the immune system to react. Sun-exposed areas of the skin display inflammation, resembling eczema. These reactions take some time to resolve. Affected skin is red, itchy, and swollen. Substances that may provoke photoallergic reactions include certain pain medications, chemotherapy drugs, fragrances, antimicrobials, and sunscreens.

Phototoxic Dermatitides

Phototoxic dermatitides, a bad skin reaction that looks like a sunburn, can be caused by a combination of sunlight and topical agents.

Phototoxic dermatitides (dermatitis) is an inflammatory skin rash that mostly resembles a bad sunburn. It is caused by a reaction between certain topical agents and the sun. These chemicals include some cosmetics, sunscreens, fragrances, air pollutants, coal tar products, insecticides, and disinfectants.

Phototoxic Drug Reaction

A bad reaction to medicine and sun exposure can cause a phototoxic drug reaction.

Phototoxic reactions occur when ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation combines with a photosensitizing topical drug or oral medication to produce skin markings that resemble a sunburn. The reaction manifests very quickly. Symptoms of the condition may include stinging, burning, and redness within 24 hours of sun exposure. Some kinds of antihistamines and antibiotics are common phototoxic agents.

Phototoxic Drug-induced Photosensitivity

Burning and stinging can result from a phototoxic drug-induced photosensitivity.

Topical phototoxic dermatitis is a skin condition that results when a photosensitizing drug is applied to the skin and then the area is exposed to UVA radiation. The affected area may burn, sting, or smart, but not itch. Healing of the area results in noticeable pigmentation. This photo depicts a patient with the condition. The back sides of her hands have developed dusky erythema after treatment with demethylchlortetracycline. The condition developed after her hands received sun exposure. Some redness is evident on the cheeks and bridge of the nose.

Phytophotodermatitis Hyperpigmentation

Some plants--especially limes--can cause the skin to react with phytophotodermatitis hyperpigmentation.

Phytophotodermatitis is a skin condition that results when the skin comes into contact with certain plants and then receives exposure to sunlight inducing an inflammatory reaction. This constitutes a phototoxic reaction due to photosensitizing compounds in several plant families. Limes are a common trigger of this condition. The photo depicts a patient who got oil from the rind of a lime on her hands and subsequently touched her face while sunbathing.

Phytophotodermatitis

Eating citrus fruits can cause your skin react to sunlight. This is called phytophotodermatitis.

Phytophotodermatitis is a type of skin rash that occurs after ingestion of photosensitizing agents in certain foods (such as citrus fruits) and exposure to sunlight. The photo depicts hyperpigmentation caused by phytophotodermatitis induced by ingestion of limes and subsequent exposure to the sun

Phytophotodermatitis With Blisters

Sometimes blisters appear after a bad reaction to lime juice or other plants when they are exposed to sunlight. This is called phytophotodermatitis.

Phytophotodermatitis occurs when the skin is exposed to certain offending plants and light. The photo depicts the hands of a patient who has the condition. Bullae are apparent after the patient was exposed to lime juice and the sun. The patient is a 50-year-old bartender who was making drinks on the beach at an outdoor bar in the Bahamas. The phototoxic chemical in lime is called bergapten (5-methyoxypsoralen).

Pityriasis Lichenoides

It's rare, but the blisters on your skin could be caused by PLEVA.

Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA) is a rare inflammatory skin condition that causes blisters and pustules on the skin. The photo depicts the arm of a child affected by the skin condition.

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

Salmon-colored plaques on the skin may be caused by pityriasis rubra pilaris.

Pityriasis rubra pilaris is a rare skin condition that causes salmon-colored plaques on affected areas. This photo depicts the characteristic rash on the chest of a child who has the condition.

Pityriasis Versicolor

This fungal infection can cause light blotches on the skin. It's known as pityriasis versicolor.

Pityriasis versicolor, is a fungal infection of the skin. The photo depicts hypopigmented areas affected by pityriasis versicolor on the chest of a child.

Polymorphous Light Eruption

If you develop a skin condition about two hours after being in the sun, you may have a condition called polymorphous light eruption.

Polymorphous light (PLM) eruption is a skin condition that is triggered by exposure to sunlight. Symptoms of polymorphous light eruption tend to occur about 2 hours after sun exposure. Common symptoms such as redness, itching, and burning, tend to occur on sun-exposed areas like the backs of hands, outer portions of the forearms, and the chest. The lower legs of women are other areas frequently affected. There are cases of the disorder that run in families, often in those of Native American descent.

Treatment for polymorphous light eruption may include topical steroids, oral steroids, and desensitization with phototherapy. Avoiding sun exposure between 11 AM and 3 PM is advised.

Polymorphous Light Eruption on Nose

Cases of polymorphous light eruption have been known to run in families, particularly among Native Americans.

Polymorphous light eruption (PML) is a disease that causes abnormal, delayed reactions to sunlight such as erythematous papules, papulovesicles, plaques, and erythema multiforme. The photo depicts a patient with PML on across the nose. The symptoms of the condition are brought on by sun exposure.

Symptoms like chills, headache, lethargy, and nausea typically emerge about 4 hours after sun exposure and can last between 1 to 2 hours. Patients diagnosed with PML can use topical steroid cream to reduce inflammation and sunscreen to help prevent against further outbreaks. Phototherapy may desensitize affected individuals against light that provokes symptoms. Oral steroids may be used in extreme cases.

Sources:

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  2. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  3. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. Copyright © Bart's Medical Library / Phototake -- All rightsreserved.
  6. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  9. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  14. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  19. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  20. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  21. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  23. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos. Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  26. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.
  27. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  28. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  29. Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
  30. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES:

  • National Eczema Association: "Eczema"
  • American Family Physician: "Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview"
  • American Academy of Dermatology: "Dry Skin"
  • American Academy of Dermatology: "Atopic Dermatitis"
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology: "Juvenile Plantar Dermatosis"
  • American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology: "Contact Dermatitis"
  • BioMed Research International, 2014: "Tatoo-Associated Skin Reaction: The Importance of an Early Diagnosis and Proper Treatment."
  • Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America: "Contact Dermatitis"
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Parasites – Cercarial Dermatitis"
  • Medical Surgical Nursing: An Integrated Approach: "Dermatitis Venenata and Medicamentosa"
  • Foundations and Adult Health Nursing: "Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin."
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology: "Lichen Striatus"
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology: "Palmoplantar Pustulosis"
  • Skin Cancer Foundation: "Phototoxic Reactions versus Photoallergic Reactions"
  • Collegium Anthropologicum, vol. 31, 2007: "Phototoxic and Photoallergic Skin Reactions"
  • Chemical Immunology and Allergy, vol. 97, 2012: "Phototoxic and Photoallergic Cutaneous Drug Reactions"
  • Eplasty, vol. 13, 2013: "Phytophotodermatitis"
  • Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 4, 2014: "Lime-Induced Phytophotodermatitis"
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. "Pityriasis Lichenoides"
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology: "Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris"
  • UpToDate: "Tinea Versicolor (Pityriasis Versicolor)"
  • American Osteopathic College of Dermatology: "Polymorphous Light Eruption"
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