Mental Health: Marijuana Addiction and Abuse

Studies show about 1 in 10 adults who use marijuana can get addicted.

Is Marijuana Addictive?

Addiction is more common in drugs like alcohol or cocaine. But it's possible to get hooked on marijuana, also known as cannabis. That means you can't stop using it, even if you want to. Studies show about 1 in 10 adults who use marijuana can get addicted. Your chances go up to 1 in 6 if you use it before age 18.

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) can cause physical, emotional, or social problems.

What Is Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD)?

You might have this condition if smoking marijuana causes physical, emotional, or social problems. It's also called marijuana use disorder. CUD can range from mild to severe.

If you can't quit, or have mental or physical health problems from marijuana, you may have CUD.

How Do You Know if You Have CUD?

Do you use marijuana every day or almost every day? Have you tried to quit but can't? Do you get unwanted symptoms when you stop, like anxiety, crankiness, or trouble sleeping? Do those go away when you use marijuana again? Do you have a strong urge, or craving, to use it? Do you keep using it even though bad things happen, like problems at work, school, or with friends and family? If you answered yes to any of these, you may have CUD.

If you already have mental health problems, you shouldn't use marijuana.

Problems Linked to CUD

Marijuana use can make it hard to think, learn, or pay attention. If you drive while high, you're more likely to have a car wreck. If you already have mental health problems, CUD can worsen them. People who use marijuana a lot are more likely to be jobless and not happy with life. If you use it every day, you might get withdrawal symptoms a day or two after stopping. These include insomnia, mood problems, or cravings you can't control.

Early use, genes, and environment all play a role the marijuana addiction CUD.

Who Gets CUD?

Early use may lead to marijuana problems. Genes and environment also play a role. You're more likely to get CUD if you misuse other drugs, like alcohol. Your chances also go up if you use marijuana a lot and by yourself. Mental health issues, like anxiety or a mood disorder, can raise your chances, too.

THC triggers receptors in your brain called endocannabinoid neurotransmitters.

How Does CUD Happen?

Marijuana has THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol. It triggers receptors in your brain called endocannabinoid neurotransmitters. When you use addictive drugs like marijuana a lot, you can change circuits in your brain. Over time, you become less sensitive to the chemicals in marijuana. You might make less endocannabinoid. That means you may need to use more of the drug to feel "normal," or you may feel stressed out when you're not using it.

Learn how to avoid marijuana addiction and cannabis use disorder CUD.

How to Avoid CUD

The only sure way to stop CUD from happening is to never use marijuana. Not using drugs when you're young might lower your chances. If you have children, make sure they know marijuana can be harmful. Keep a close eye on your kids if you get divorced, move, or have to send them to a different school. Teenagers tend to use drugs when faced with uncertain changes.

Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET), and contingency management (CM) may help with CUD.

How to Treat CUD

Most people with CUD don't seek treatment. But you may get better if you try psychotherapy, or talk therapy. That includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET), and contingency management (CM). These can help you change thoughts and behaviors that make it hard to quit. You could also try to use marijuana only on certain days of the week, like the weekends. Meditation may also help you use less.

Teens addicted to marijuana do best when treated with family therapy.

Treatment for Teens With CUD

Psychotherapy can help young people too. But they may do better when loved ones are involved in treatment. That's how multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) works. If you're a caregiver, you can go to MDFT with your teen.

Antidepressants, cannabinoid agonists, mood stabilizers, and insomnia medications may help with marijuana withdrawal.

Can Medicine Help With CUD?

If you're dependent on cannabis, you could go through withdrawal for weeks or relapse after you quit. That's why experts are studying how medicine can ease withdrawal symptoms like bad mood, anxiety, restlessness, and sleep issues. They're looking at antidepressants, cannabinoid agonists, mood stabilizers, and insomnia medication, but there are no FDA-approved meds for CUD. Some of these may treat mental health problems that worsen CUD.

In the long run, marijuana can do a lot of harm to your sleep.

Marijuana Abuse and Sleep

You may use cannabis to help you doze off at night. But in the long run, marijuana can do a lot of harm to your sleep. And heavy use may cause a lot of problems when you try to quit. You might have nightmares, insomnia, or bad sleep quality. If this happens to you, talk to your doctor about how to treat these symptoms.

If you're pregnant or want to be, ask your doctor for help on how to give up cannabis.

CUD and Pregnancy

Experts aren't sure how cannabis affects your baby. But animal studies show it may change how their brain grows. More research is needed to know what'll happen after they're born. But if they're exposed to marijuana daily, they may have a hard time learning or paying attention when they get older. If you're pregnant or want to be, ask your doctor for help on how to give up cannabis.

It's important to know about the benefits and problems of medical marijuana before you begin treatment.

How to Use Medical Marijuana

In some states, doctors can prescribe cannabis. There's research into its health benefits. It's used to treat pain that doesn't go away and may help with symptoms of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or glaucoma. Write down what type of cannabis you use. (For example, is it an edible, a joint, or an oil?) Keep track of how it makes you feel. Tell your doctor about any bad side effects. They can prescribe a different kind or dose.

Always talk to your doctor before using medical marijuana during pregnancy.

Medical Marijuana and Pregnancy

You may have heard that marijuana helps with morning sickness. But there's no scientific evidence this is safe. If you're pregnant, you shouldn't use medical marijuana unless your doctor says it's OK.

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REFERENCES:

  • Canadian Family Physician: "Approach to cannabis use disorder in primary care."
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): "Know the Risks of Marijuana."
  • Neuropsychopharmacology: "US Epidemiology of Cannabis Use and Associated Problems."
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH): "Marijuana use disorder is common and often untreated," "What is medical marijuana?"
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  • Addiction Science & Clinical Practice: "Sleep abnormalities associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiate use: a comprehensive review."
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: "Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation."
  • Harvard Health Publishing: "Medical Marijuana."
  • Americans for Safe Access: "Guide to using medical cannabis."
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