Plague is an infectious disease caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria, which is primarily found in rodents the fleas that feed off of them. The bacteria are passed to humans through flea or rodent bites. There are three forms of plague: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic. The symptoms and method of transmission vary with each form of plague. Plague can be treated with antibiotics.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Plague is a disease that is transmitted from infected animals, usually fleas, to humans.
Plague then may be transmitted from humans to others by direct contact or by touching or breathing droplets that contain the bacterium,
Yersinia pestis. Untreated plague causes much suffering and deaths in humans.
Symptoms of plague vary and are grouped into three types:
Septicemic plague: In general, septicemic plague patients do not develop buboes.
Instead signs and symptoms may include fever, chills, weakness, bleeding under the skin, abdominal pain, and septic shock with low blood pressure.
Plague is preliminarily diagnosed by physical examination and by cultures of blood or other sites; definitive diagnosis is done by immunological tests that identify Y. pestis specifically.
Plague is treated by several types of antibiotics.
The history of plague infections of humans is extensive, and plague bacteria are considered to be
biological weapons by some governments.
Although plague is endemic in some animal populations, fleas can transfer Y. pestis from animals to man; once a person is infected, the disease can easily be transmitted to other humans by direct and indirect contact with droplets or material touched by the infected person.
Prevention of plague is done by eliminating areas where animals, especially rodents, congregate and by avoiding the fleas the rodents carry. Some infections can be prevented by taking antibiotics soon after exposure to the disease.
There are no commercially available vaccines against plague; however, there is a small amount available from the U.S. government for researchers
who work with
Ongoing research includes trying to develop a plague vaccine with few side effects; others are exploring the
Y. pestis genome for insights into its pathogenic mechanisms.
What are the biological agents that can be utilized for bioterrorism?
While any germ, bacteria, or virus could potentially be utilized by terrorist, there are a number of biological agents that have been recognized as being more likely to be utilized. The reason for these agents being of concern is based on their availability to terrorists and the ease by which these agents can be disseminated.
There are many causes of chest pain, and while many are not serious, it may be difficult to distinguish among heart attack, pulmonary embolus or aortic dissection, and another diagnosis that is not life-threateni"...