Impotence (ED) (cont.)

Medical Author:
Medical Editor:
Medical Editor:

What will the future bring for erectile dysfunction?

Combination therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has been under investigation. Most of these studies have been small trials, and long-term data regarding their effectiveness and safety are lacking. However, with thorough evaluation and counseling, there may be a use for combination therapy for certain individuals with ED.

Melanocortin receptor agonists are a new set of medications being developed in the field of erectile dysfunction. Their action is on the nervous system rather than the vascular system. PT-141 is a nasal preparation which appears to be effective alone or in combination with PDE5 inhibitors. The main side effects include flushing and nausea. These drugs are currently not approved for commercial use.

Medically reviewed by Michael Wolff, MD; American Board of Urology

Previous contributing author: Dennis Lee, MD

Portions of the above information has been provided by the National Institutes of Health (


Brosman, Stanley A. "Erectile Dysfunction." July 22, 2009. <>.

Diamond, L.E., D.C. Earle, W.D. Garcia, and C. Spana. "Co-administration of Low Doses of Intranasal PT-141, a Melanocortin Receptor Agonist, and Sildenafil to Men with Erectile Dysfunction Results in an Enhanced Erectile Response." Urology 65 (2005): 755.

Ellsworth, Pamela, and Eileen M. Kirshenbaum. "Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Management of Erectile Dysfunction." Nov. 26, 2008. <>.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/3/2014

Patient Comments

Viewers share their comments

Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) - Treatments Question: What effective treatments, including medication, have you found for your erectile dysfunction?
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) - Share Your Experience Question: Please share you or your partner's experience with erectile dysfunction (impotence).
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) - Risk Factors Question: What were your risk factors for erectile dysfunction (impotence)?
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) - Surgery Question: What type of surgery did you or your partner have for erectile dysfunction (impotence)? Was it effective?