Gout (cont.)

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How is gouty arthritis diagnosed?

Gout is suspected when a patient reports a history of attacks of painful arthritis, particularly at the base of the toes. Ankles and knees are the next most commonly involved joints in gout. Gout usually attacks one joint at a time, while other arthritis conditions, such as systemic lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, usually attack multiple joints simultaneously.

The most reliable test for gout is finding uric acid crystals in a sample of the joint fluid obtained by joint aspiration (arthrocentesis). Arthrocentesis is a common office procedure performed under local anesthesia. Using sterile technique, fluid is withdrawn (aspirated) from the inflamed joint using a syringe and needle. The joint fluid is then analyzed for uric acid crystals and for infection. Shiny, needle-like uric acid crystals are best viewed with a special polarizing filter under a microscope. The diagnosis of gout can also be made by finding these urate crystals from material aspirated from tophi nodules and bursitis fluid. Although many doctors can do the procedure, rheumatologists are specialists who are particularly trained in this evaluation.

Sometimes, patients with a classic history and symptoms of gout can be successfully treated and presumed to have gout without undergoing arthrocentesis. However, establishing a firm diagnosis is still preferable since other conditions can mimic gout. These include another crystal-induced arthritis called pseudogout, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even infection in the joint.

X-rays can sometimes be helpful and may show tophi-crystal deposits and bone damage as a result of repeated bouts of inflammation. X-rays can also be helpful for monitoring the effects of chronic gout on the joints.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/9/2014

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